et Management Stratégique des PME :
le cas du secteur Internet"
par Gaël GUEGUEN, Université Montpellier I
ENVIRONMENT AND STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF SME : THE CASE OF INTERNET SECTOR
The study of the relation between the firm and its environment is based on different ways of thinking from determinism to voluntarism. If intermediate ways exist, the analysis of small business is often seen from the angle of environmental constraints, notably for the selection of strategic choices (strategic fit).
The research work wants to measure the potential of voluntarism of small business that one is based on two concepts : first, the identification of the proactive characteristics of strategies (pro-activity). Second, the estimate of the degree of freedom in strategic choice (anti-determinism). To concentrate the effort of the research, we will only analyze the anti-determinism aspect. We want to know if the small business develops its strategy under the influence of environmental fatalism (constrained choices) or under the influence of environmental emancipation (free choices).
Because of the immediate environment, because of the strategic intent of the manager or the use of relational strategies, it seems that small businesses are able to develop some strategies on the fringe of the constraints set by the context. To measure this fact, we have tested two types of firms : a first sample representing the small businesses of the Internet and a second one corresponding to small businesses which don't include Internet in their activity. This test wants to put forward The specificity of strategic management within "the new economy".
After several statisticals tests (moderator effects, discriminating analysis,...) applied to the dimensions of the environment (uncertainty, complexity, dynamism, turbulences) and applied to four categories of strategy (entrepreneurial, positioning, flexibility, relational), we can talk about voluntarist perspective for SME : they are subject to auto-determinism to select specific strategic behaviors.
SME allows it self some latitude to choose its strategies according to the environment intensity.
SME, Strategy, Internet, Environment, Voluntarism, Determinism, Strategic fit, New economy